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  • Chinese tea ceremony

    2020-08-26   来源:JUNZINN

         

    Tea is the national drink of the Chinese nation. It originated from Shennong, heard about Lu Zhougong, flourished in the Tang Dynasty, and flourished in the Song Dynasty. Now it has become one of the three most popular non-alcoholic beverages (tea, coffee and cocoa) in the world, and will become the beverage king of the 21st century. Tea drinking hobbies spread all over the world, and more than 50 countries around the world grow tea. Tracing back to its roots, the tea originally drunk in various countries in the world, the introduced tea species, as well as tea drinking methods, cultivation techniques, processing techniques, and tea etiquette, etc., were all directly or indirectly spread from China. Tea trees are native to southwest China. my country is the first country in the world to discover and use tea trees. China is the birthplace of tea and is known as the "motherland of tea". Tea is the pride of the Chinese nation!


        Tea culture broadly speaking, the natural science of tea and the humanities of tea refer to the sum of the material wealth and spiritual wealth related to tea created in the course of human social and historical practice. In a narrow sense, the humanities focusing on tea mainly refers to the spiritual and social functions of tea. Since the natural science of tea has formed an independent system, the tea culture that is often talked about now focuses on the humanities.


      The origin of tea


    Before the Qin and Han dynasties, tea drinking was popular in Sichuan. In the Western Han Dynasty, tea was a special product of Sichuan. It was once spread to the capital city of Chang'an through tribute. It turns out that the east and west of Sichuan in ancient my country was the birthplace of tea trees, and this is where the three emperors and five emperors first lived. Shennong is the leader of the "San Miao" and "Jiu Li" tribes. In ancient books such as "Historical Records of Wu Qi" and "Shuo Yuan", there are records of "Sanmiao, Hengshan in the south, Qishan in the north, the slope of the left Dongting, and the river of Pengli on the right", which shows that the origin of the Shennong clan is The mountainous areas in eastern Sichuan and western Hubei are the area of Da Shennongjia today. In such an environment with lush vegetation and still rich in tea, it is entirely possible for Shennong to taste Baicao. Later, these tribes continued to move north or east, and the northwest became the political center of China to Emperor Shun’s resignation to Dayu. The political center of the clan society has moved to the area of Dengfeng, Henan. The Xia Dynasty has been excavated in Wangchenggang there a few years ago. The relics of the relics, Dayu took over, were not all smooth sailing. At the beginning, the water was controlled on the coast of Jiangsu and Zhejiang, dredging into the sea, leading Tiaoxi, Yubuxi, and Taihu to overcome the flood. Later, he defeated Fangfeng's and gradually moved northward. Emperor Shun gave way to him when he learned that Yu had done a good job in water control. The descendants of the "San Miao" were not convinced, so the "Historical Records of the Five Emperors" has a record that "the San Miao was in Jianghuai and Jingzhou was in chaos. Dayu's water management was in the south of the Yangtze River. The history books also have a basis: After Qin Shihuang unified China, he "goed to Kuaiji and sacrificed to Dayu". When Sima Qian was 20 years old, he also "goed to Kuaiji and explored Yu's cave." So today there are relics of Dayu in Shaoxing, Zhejiang. . Xia Yuyuan gave way to "General Hundred Insects" Boyi, but he seized power for his son Xia Qi. Qi had three sons, Taikang, Zhongkang and Shaokang. There were constant struggles for the throne until Xiazhu, the sixth generation of Yu, unified the political situation. With strong national strength, he led his troops to seek roots in the west of Zhejiang and the Miaofeng area of Yanluan in the southeast of Jindou Mountain in Hua, so the mountains in this area are called Zhushan. At that time, there are still remains of Xiawang Village, Pita City, in Shannan. After Xia Zhu declined for eight generations, the contract was annihilated by Kui (Jie), and the contract established the pre-Shang generation.


    From the existing historical data, it is not difficult to see that the "San Miao clan" in the clan society was the place where the "San Miao clan" lived, and the tea production has not declined for generations. For example, during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Anzhou (now Anlu, Hubei) was mentioned in the "Liu Kun Buying Tea Book"; Youyang (now Huangfengdong, Hubei) and Badong (Fengjie, Sichuan) are mentioned in "Tongjunlu"; Wuling (Changde, Hunan) is mentioned in "The Land of Jingzhou". They are rich in tea. Historical materials from the Tang Dynasty mentioned that Jiangling, Nanzhang, Hubei, Pengjing, Anjing, and Qionglai of Sichuan were rich in tea. Among the eleven prefectures where tea quality is unknown in Lu Yu's "Tea Jing" is Ezhou, which is now Wuchang, Hubei. From this it can be seen that the "Shen Nong's Materia Medica" records: "Shen Nong tastes a hundred herbs, encounters 72 poisons a day, and gets tea to solve it" should happen in the Central Plains of my country. Even from the facts about drinking and selling tea recorded in "Wang Baotong Yue", it can be seen that before the Han Dynasty, the production and utilization of tea in eastern Sichuan and western Hubei was quite developed. It is not difficult for people to imagine how long it will take for the process from picking wild tea to artificially cultivating tea trees, from self-sufficiency to "production, supply and marketing". Therefore, our ancestors have a long history of discovering the use of cultivated tea.


    The Formation of Chinese Tea Culture

     

    In a broad sense, tea culture, the natural science of tea and the humanities of tea, refer to the sum of the material wealth and spiritual wealth related to tea created in the course of human social and historical practice. In a narrow sense, the humanities focusing on tea mainly refers to the spiritual and social functions of tea. Since the natural science of tea has formed an independent system, the tea culture that is often talked about now focuses on the humanities.


    Enlightenment of tea culture before the Three Kingdoms


      Many books set the discovery time of tea as 2737-2697 BC, and its history can be extended to three emperors and five emperors. In the Eastern Han Dynasty Huatuo's "Shi Jing": "Bitter tea is good for a long time" records the medical value of tea. The Western Han Dynasty named the county where the tea was produced "Daling", that is, the Chaling of Hunan. The method and drinking of cake tea was first recorded in the "Guang Ya" of the Wei Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms: picking leaves between Jingba to make cakes, the old leaves of the leaves made cakes, and rice paste. Tea appears in material form and penetrates into other humanities to form tea culture.


     The buds of tea culture in the Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties


           With the rise of literati drinking tea, poems and songs about tea have come out day by day. Tea has broken away from the general diet and entered the cultural circle, playing a certain spiritual and social role.


     The Formation of Tea Culture in Tang Dynasty

     

     

    In 780, Lu Yu wrote "The Classic of Tea", a sign of the formation of tea culture in the Tang Dynasty. It summarizes the dual content of tea natural and human sciences, discusses the art of tea drinking, integrates the three religions of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism into tea drinking, and pioneered the spirit of Chinese tea ceremony. Later, a large number of tea books and tea poems appeared, such as "The Story of Tea", "The Notes of Sencha Water", "The Notes of Picking Tea", and "Sixteen Soup Products". The formation of tea culture in the Tang Dynasty was related to the rise of Zen Buddhism. Because tea has the function of refreshing and rejuvenating, producing essence and quenching thirst, temples advocate tea drinking, plant tea trees around the temple, formulate tea rituals, set up tea houses, and select tea heads. Tea event. The Chinese tea ceremony formed in the Tang Dynasty is divided into court tea ceremony, temple tea ceremony and literati tea ceremony.


      The Prosperity of Tea Culture in Song Dynasty

     

     

    The tea industry in the Song Dynasty has developed greatly, which has promoted the development of tea culture. Professional tea tasting clubs have appeared among the literati, such as the "soup club" composed of officials and the "thousand people club" of Buddhists. Emperor Song Taizu, Zhao Kuangyin, was a tea addict. He set up a tea agency in the palace, and the tea used in the palace was divided into levels. Tea ceremony has become a ritual system, and giving tea has become an important means for the emperor to win over ministers and caring relatives, and it is also given to foreign envoys. As for the lower class society, the tea culture is even more lively. Some people migrate, neighbours have to "offer tea", have customers come, have to offer "Yuanbao tea", "offer tea" when they get married, "make tea" when they get married, and when they are in the same room. "He Cha". The rise of folk tea fighting brought a series of changes in the picking and cooking points.


     Popularization of Ming and Qing tea culture


      At this time, various teas such as steamed green, fried green, and roasted green have appeared. The drinking of tea has been changed to the "puffing method". Many literati and scholars in the Ming Dynasty have left handed down works, such as Tang Bohu's "Cooking Tea Picture Scroll" and "Ping Tea". "Tea Picture", "Huishan Tea Meeting" by Wen Zhengming, "Lu Yu Cooking Tea", "Tasting Tea", etc. With the increase in tea, the techniques of making tea are different, and the styles, textures, and patterns of tea sets vary. By the Qing Dynasty, tea export had become a formal industry, with countless tea books, tea affair, and tea poems.


     The development of modern tea culture

     

     

    The tea industry in the Song Dynasty has developed greatly, which has promoted the development of tea culture. Professional tea tasting clubs have appeared among the literati, such as the "soup club" composed of officials and the "thousand people club" of Buddhists. Emperor Song Taizu, Zhao Kuangyin, was a tea addict. He set up a tea agency in the palace, and the tea used in the palace was divided into levels. Tea ceremony has become a ritual system, and giving tea has become an important means for the emperor to win over ministers and caring relatives, and it is also given to foreign envoys. As for the lower class society, the tea culture is even more lively. Some people migrate, neighbours have to "offer tea", have customers come, have to offer "Yuanbao tea", "offer tea" when they get married, "make tea" when they get married, and when they are in the same room. "He Cha". The rise of folk tea fighting brought a series of changes in the picking and cooking points.


     Popularization of Ming and Qing tea culture


      At this time, various teas such as steamed green, fried green, and roasted green have appeared. The drinking of tea has been changed to the "puffing method". Many literati and scholars in the Ming Dynasty have left handed down works, such as Tang Bohu's "Cooking Tea Picture Scroll" and "Ping Tea". "Tea Picture", "Huishan Tea Meeting" by Wen Zhengming, "Lu Yu Cooking Tea", "Tasting Tea", etc. With the increase in tea, the techniques of making tea are different, and the styles, textures, and patterns of tea sets vary. By the Qing Dynasty, tea export had become a formal industry, with countless tea books, tea affair, and tea poems.


     The development of modern tea culture...


    A bit of tea culture in China


       The origin of the word "tea" was first seen in my country's book "Shen Nong's Herbal Medicine", which is the oldest and first medicine book in the world. According to the research of relevant experts, the book is a work of the Warring States Period (5 BC-221 BC).


       The saint of tea in my country-Lu Yu of the Tang Dynasty wrote the world's earliest tea monograph "Tea Jing" around 758 AD, which systematically and comprehensively discussed the methods and experiences of tea planting, tea making, tea drinking, and tea evaluation. According to the inference of Lu Yu's "The Classic of Tea", my country has a history of more than 4,700 years of discovering and using tea trees.


       Tea was used as a sacrifice in my country during the Western Zhou Dynasty. In the Spring and Autumn Period, fresh tea leaves were used as food, while tea was used as a medicine in the Warring States Period, and tea has become one of the main commodities in the Western Han Dynasty. During the more than three hundred years from the Three Kingdoms to the Southern and Northern Dynasties, especially during the Southern and Northern Dynasties, Buddhism prevailed. The Buddhists used tea drinking to relieve the doze of sitting meditation, so tea was generally grown in the valleys beside the temples. Tea drinking promoted Buddhism, and Buddhism promoted the development of tea stoves. This is the source of the so-called "tea Buddha blindly" in history. In the Tang Dynasty, tea was officially used as a popular beverage among the people.


       Tea has been the bond of friendship between the Chinese and Japanese peoples since ancient times. During the Tang Dynasty, Japanese monks came to my country’s Tiantai Mountain Guoqing Temple to study Buddhism. When they returned home, they brought back tea seeds to be planted in Hezi County (now Chishang Tea Garden), and spread to central and southern Japan. During the Southern Song Dynasty, Zen Master Rongxi from Japan came to China twice and visited Tiantai, Siming, and Tiantong. Song Xiaozong bestowed him the title of "Master of Thousand Lights". Master Rongxi Shan not only has a deep knowledge of Buddhism, but also has a lot of research on Chinese tea. He wrote the book "Eating Tea for Health", which is respected by the Japanese as the tea ancestor. In the opening day of the Southern Song Dynasty, the Japanese Buddhist monk came to Zhejiang Jingshan Temple to study Buddhism. When he returned to China, he brought with Jingshan Temple’s "tea props" and "tea stand", Jing Jiang Jingshan Temple’s "tea feast" and "Matcha" making The law spread to Japan, inspiring and promoting the rise of Japanese tea ceremony.


       In the Song Dynasty, Arab merchants settled in Quanzhou, Fujian, and sold tea; in the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He went to the West, and tea was also sold to Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, in 1610 AD, Dutch merchant ships first transported tea from Macau to Europe, opening the door for Chinese tea to be sold to both sides.


      The earliest record of teahouses in our country can be counted as the "Feng Shi Wenjian Ji" performed during the Kaiyuan period of the Tang Dynasty, which includes "From Zou, Qi, Cang, Li, and gradually to Beijing, more shops opened in cities, making tea and selling So, don't ask about morals and customs, invest money to drink." After the Tang and Song dynasties, many places opened teahouses selling tea. In the Qing Dynasty, folk opera entered the tea house, making the tea house a place for cultural entertainment and rest.


       According to legend, the largest tea house in my country is the "Huahua Tea House" in Sichuan, with three halls and four courtyards. Chengdu teahouse has large back chairs, which are extremely comfortable for drinking tea and chatting or taking a nap.   The people of our country have always had the habit of "customers come to offer tea", which fully reflects the civilization and courtesy of the Chinese nation. In ancient times, Qi Shizu, Lu Na and others advocated using tea instead of wine. Liu Zhenliang of the Tang Dynasty praised the ten virtues of "tea". He believed that in addition to fitness, tea drinking can also "respect tea", "tea can be elegant", and "tea can be a way". During the Tang and Song Dynasties, many literati, such as Bai Juyi, Li Bai, Liu Zongyuan, Liu Yuxi, Pi Rixiu, Wei Yingwu, Wen Tingyun, Lu You, Ouyang Xiu, Su Dongpo, etc., not only loved tea, they also praised and described tea in their masterpieces. .


     Tea Theory --- Development of Tea History

     

     

    Tea is the national drink of the Chinese nation. It originated from Shennong, heard about Lu Zhougong, flourished in the Tang Dynasty, and flourished in the Song Dynasty. Now it has become one of the three most popular non-alcoholic beverages (tea, coffee and cocoa) in the world, and will become the beverage king of the 21st century. Tea drinking hobbies are spread all over the world. There are more than 50 countries in the world growing tea. Seeking the roots, the first tea drunk in the world, the introduced tea species, as well as tea drinking methods, cultivation techniques, processing techniques, tea etiquette, etc. Directly or indirectly spread from China. China is the birthplace of tea and is known as "the motherland of tea". Tea is the pride of the Chinese nation!


        The tea tree is native to southwest China. my country is the first country in the world to discover and use tea trees. The development of tea history in my country has gone through five stages:


          1. Wild medicinal stage. The use of tea began as a medicinal material. It was pointed out in the book "Shen Nong's Materia Medica": "Shen Nong tastes a hundred herbs, meets 72 poisons every day, and gets rid of it by tea" (Note: tea was originally named Tu). From 2737-2697 BC, tea was discovered by Shennong and used as a medicinal material. Since then, tea has been gradually promoted for medicinal use. However, historical data is very scarce when it began to be used as a beverage. Only Wang Bao’s article "Tong Yue" in 59 BC mentioned "buying tea in Wuyang" and "making tea with everything" and other work content, which is used for drinking tea. The earliest recorded.


    2. A small amount of planting for drinking by monks and nobles. The habit of drinking tea should originate in Sichuan and Shu, and then gradually spread to various places. By the beginning of the Western Han Dynasty, tea had become a premium drink for monks, royals and nobles. In the period of the Three Kingdoms, court drinking tea was more frequent.


    3. A large number of development stages. From Jin to Sui, tea drinking gradually became popular and became a folk drink. However, until the early period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, there was still a certain geographical gap in the trend of tea drinking. The southern tea drinking was more prosperous than the northern one. However, with the gradual integration of the North and South cultures, the tea drinking culture has gradually spread from south to north. But the prosperity of tea style was after the establishment of the Datang Empire. The reasons for the prosperity of tea drinking in the Tang Dynasty are as follows:


           1. After the establishment of the Tang Dynasty, the society was stable, the economy was developed, and the transportation was convenient, which greatly developed the production, trade and consumption of tea;


        2. The prosperity of tea drinking is also related to the prohibition on alcohol promulgated by the Tang Dynasty government. Due to population growth and the massive exiles of farmers and the loss of land caused by wars, food was very scarce after the mid-Tang Dynasty, but winemaking required a large amount of food. In order to alleviate this contradiction, Tang Suzong issued a prohibition order in the first year of Qianyuan. At the beginning of the prohibition of alcohol in Chang'an, many people who were addicted to alcohol turned to tea and replaced wine with tea, which promoted the spread of tea drinking.


        3. The prosperity of tea drinking in the Tang Dynasty was inextricably linked with the rise of tribute tea, the prosperous poetry style, the imperial examination system and the spread of Buddhism. Tea drinking before Tang Dynasty was extensive. With the popularity of tea in the Tang Dynasty, the way of drinking tea has also undergone significant changes, with the emergence of a slow-decocted tea-drinking method. This change is a major event in the history of tea drinking, and the credit should be attributed to the tea saint Lu Yu. The people of Song Dynasty inherited the way of drinking tea of the Tang people, but they are more exquisite than the people of Tang Dynasty, and the production is more refined, and the most refined is the production of palace tuan tea (cake tea). Although the tea in Song Dynasty was mainly cake tea, there were also some famous loose teas, such as Rizhu tea, Shuangjing tea, and Jingshan tea. The loose tea was especially popular among scholars. In terms of drinking, the method of making tea in the Tang Dynasty is changed to the method of making tea, that is, instead of putting the powdered tea into water for boiling, it is poured into the tea cup with boiling water, and then fully stirred to make the tea and water fully dissolved. When it is milky and the bowl is filled with fine white foam, you can drink it slowly. The tea drinking in the Ming and Qing dynasties was significantly different from the previous generations in terms of tea types and drinking methods. In the Ming Dynasty, loose tea was developed and expanded on the basis of the Tang and Song Dynasties, making it the main tea that prevailed in the Ming and Qing dynasties and has been passed down to this day. Most of the loose tea made by the stir-fried method in the Ming Dynasty was green tea, with some scented tea. In the Qing Dynasty, in addition to green tea and scented tea with various names, oolong tea, black tea, black tea and white tea appeared, which established the basic types of tea structure in my country.


    Fourth, the decline stage. Although the working people in ancient my country had a lot of valuable experience in tea and contributed to the development of tea production in countries around the world, due to the rule of corrupt politics before liberation, tea science and technology and experience could not be summarized, promoted and utilized. Tea production Under the squeeze and manipulation of imperialism, they are declining.


       Fifth, after the liberation of my country's tea production stage of great development. After the liberation, my country’s tea production has recovered and developed. A concentrated area of new high-standard tea gardens has been opened up, and the area of tea gardens has been continuously expanded; a large number of low-yield tea gardens have been comprehensively managed in accordance with local conditions; both focus on the construction of tea farms and tea factories, and implement scientific tea cultivation , The training of tea science and technology personnel has promoted the development of tea production. This stage roughly experienced two stages. The first stage was from 1950 to 1970. During the 20 years, the main focus was on reclamation, development, and efforts to expand the planting area. During this period, the area of tea gardens increased by an average of 7.3% per year, while the output of tea increased by 5.9%. After 1970, the focus of this stage turned to improving the structure of tea gardens, increasing the yield of tea gardens, and perfecting the tea-making technology. After entering the 1990s, the production of famous and high-quality teas has sprung up, with a wide range of varieties. Not only has it resumed the production of many historical famous teas, but also created a wide range of new famous teas.